GERMINOMA MEDIASTINUM PDF

The mediastinum is the most common extragonadal location. In adults, approximately % of mediastinal tumors are germ cell tumors;. 20% of mediastinal tumors and cysts; Typically divided into seminomas versus nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (teratomas [mature or. Mediastinal germ cell tumors are tumors that derive from germ cell rest remnants in the mediastinum. They most commonly occur in the gonad but occasionally.

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New author database being installed, click here for details. Usually males ages 20 – 49 years, similar to gonadal tumors Cancer ; Page views in to date: Retrieved from ” https: Epidemiology Usually males Gross description Invasive, highly necrotic Microscopic histologic mediashinum Poorly differentiated, pleomorphic cells with prominent nucleoli, often with eosinophilic intracellular mediastinuum or primitive lumina; variable geographic necrosis No nuclear blebs Microscopic histologic images Images hosted on other servers: Rare cases of adult onset acute megakaryoblastic leukemia are associated with malignant mediastinal germ cell tumor.

Histologic grading of pure teratomas has prognostic significance in those neoplasms that are diagnosed in adolescents and young adults; immature teratomas germminoma the latter patients pursue an aggressive clinical course. Info – Admin Resources in pathology Technical section.

Regardless of the pathologic subtype, the mediastinal germ cell tumors have a predilection for patients in the first three decades of life. The diagnosis of a mediastinal germ cell tumor should be considered in all young males with a ger,inoma mass. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Pure mediastinal seminomas are curable in the large majority of patients, even when metastatic at the time of diagnosis.

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Pathology Outlines – Germ cell tumors

The intense staining pattern of OCT4 and the high sensitivity of FISH make them superior to other auxiliary diagnostic utilities for detecting seminoma. It should be remembered that mediastinal lymph nodes are metastatic sites for primary gonadal germ cell tumors, so that mfdiastinum thorough clinical evaluation is necessary to exclude the latter possibility.

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By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. In addition to physical examination and routine laboratory studies, initial evaluation should gwrminoma CT of the chest and abdomen, and determination of serum levels of HCG and alpha-fetoprotein.

Most mediastinal malignant tumors are large and cause symptoms by compressing or invading adjacent structures, including the lungs, pleura, pericardium, and chest wall.

Thymic seminoma with marked cystic changes, superior mediastinum.

The majority of neoplasms are mature cystic teratomas that are incidentally discovered on imaging studies of the thorax. Sign up for our Email Newsletters. However, discrepancies between the genetic alterations and immunoprofiles of mediastinal and testicular seminomas have been reported, raising the question of whether techniques that are useful in the diagnosis of gonadal seminoma are applicable to kediastinum mediastinal counterpart.

Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-expertswithout removing the technical details. Germinoma-seminoma is the most frequent nonteratomatous malignant germ cell tumor.

Germinoma with multilocular thymic cyst. Excised tumor with rib. Germ cell tumors[TI] mediastinum.

Germ cell tumors of the mediastinum.

Immunohistochemical staining for OCT4 has recently been validated as a powerful tool for detecting gonadal seminoma. Germinoma with yolk sac component. Fine needle aspiration biopsy can establish diagnosis with high degree of accuracy Am J Clin Pathol ; Mediastinum Other malignancies Germ cell tumors Author: This website is intended for pathologists and laboratory personnel, who understand that medical information is imperfect and must be interpreted using reasonable medical judgment.

Click here for patient related inquiries. Among the malignant germ cell tumors, males are affected far more commonly than females, but the male to female ratio is approximately equal among mature cystic teratomas. Unencapsulated, homogenous fleshy mass with indistinct boundaries and invasion of adjacent structures, hemorrhage or necrosis.

Germ cell tumor – mixed. This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Patients with small tumors usually asymptomatic that appear resectable usually undergo thoracotomy and attempted complete resection followed by chemotherapy.

Epidemiology Usually men in 20s with elevated hCG and gynecomastia, impotence Prognostic factors Poor prognosis Case reports 13 year old germino,a with shortness of breath, chest pain, fever, irritable cough and weight loss Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Germinomaa Zhi ; Mediastinal germ cell tumors are tumors that derive from germ cell rest remnants in the mediastinum. These neoplasms are often associated with the thymus, and in many cases appear to have originated in the thymus; residual thymic tissue is not identifiable in the highly invasive and malignant germ cell tumor.

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These results and those of other analyses suggest that the two malignancies derive from a common founding clone of cells i. These tumors are highly sensitive to radiation therapy and to combination chemotherapy. Also in this section mediastinal synovial sarcoma mediastinal low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcoma mediastinal pericytic tumors mediastinal leiomyosarcoma mediastinal leiomyoma mediastinal mesenchymal tumors mediastinal tumors mediastinal smooth muscle tumors mediastinal lymphomas mediastinal extramedullary hematopoietic tumor.

Seminomas grow relatively slowly and can become very large before causing symptoms. Pancoast tumor Solitary pulmonary nodule Central lung Peripheral lung Bronchial leiomyoma. Others hypothesize a widespread distribution of germ cells to multiple sites during normal embryogenesis, with these cells conveying genetic information or providing regulatory functions at somatic sites.

Germ cell tumors of the mediastinum.

Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors of various histologies were first described as a clinical entity approximately 50 years ago.

Accessed December 31st, The treatment for mediastinal nonseminomatous meeiastinum cell tumors should follow guidelines for poor-prognosis testicular cancer. Gestational trophoblastic disease Hydatidiform mole Choriocarcinoma Placental site trophoblastic tumor Polyembryoma Gonadoblastoma.

Am J Surg Pathol. Initial treatment with four courses of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin, followed by surgical resection of any residual disease, is considered standard therapy. In several of these cases, the genetic aberrations in the nediastinum megakaryoblasts were similar to those in the malignant mediastianl germ cells.