In animals that give live birth, the fetal circulation is the circulatory system of a fetus. The term usually encompasses the entire fetoplacental circulation, which. Persistent fetal circulation is a condition caused by a failure in the systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation to convert from the antenatal circulation pattern. Persistent fetal circulation (PFC), also known as persistent pulmonary to be open with a direction of the foetal flow from the pulmonary artery to the aorta” (3).

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If the obstruction to pulmonary blood flow is very severe, blood flow to the lungs will be supplied via the DA from the descending aorta i. This enables fetal hemoglobin to absorb oxygen from adult hemoglobin in the placenta, where the oxygen pressure is lower than at the lungs.


Physiology – Cardiovascular All Journals search input. This loss of blood supply also causes the sphincter in the ductus venosus to constrict thereby diverting blood to the liver. Circulation of a fetus. The placenta accepts the bluest blood blood without oxygen from the fetus through blood vessels that leave the fetus through the umbilical cord umbilical arteries, there are two of them. Retrieved from ” https: Oxygenated blood travels from the placenta via the umbilical vein and most of it bypasses the liver by way of the ductus venosus.

Combined ventricular output CVO.

Some of the blood moves from the aorta through the internal iliac arteries to the umbilical arteriesand re-enters the placentawhere carbon dioxide and other waste products from the fetus are taken up and enter the maternal circulation.


These closures prevent blood from bypassing pulmonary circulation, and therefore allow the neonate’s blood to become oxygenated in the newly operational lungs. Some of the blood from the right atrium does not enter the left atrium, but enters the right ventricle and is pumped into the pulmonary artery.

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The transition from fetal to neonatal life involves closure of circulatory shunts and acute changes in pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance. The DA also contains muscle that is sensitive to oxygen tension and vasoactive substances. However, after birth, the presence of HbF becomes a disadvantage.

Circulatiln branch of the umbilical vein that supplies the right lobe of the liver first joins with the portal vein. However, included below is a brief discussion of a few types of CHD that helps illustrate how the change from fetal circulation to neonatal circulation can have significant effects. Anterior cardinal vein Posterior cardinal vein Common cardinal veins.

The ductus venosus closes passively 3—10 days after birth. The cardiac output of cifculation neonate is tightly coupled with oxygen consumption.

In the xirculation, there is an opening between the right and left atrium the foramen ovaleand most of the blood flows through this hole directly into the left atrium from the right atrium, thus bypassing pulmonary circulation.

Diagram of the human feto-placental circulatory system. At birth, after expansion of the lungs, there is a dramatic fall in PVR and an 8—fold increase in pulmonary blood flow. Taken together, the diameters of the inferior and superior vena cava are larger than that of the foramen ovale and therefore a small portion of the blood seeps into the right ventricle via the tricuspid valve. Vitelline veins Vitelline arteries.

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Consultant in Paediatric Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. Oxygen content of blood is determined mainly by circulation foetale quantity of haemoglobin and its oxygen saturation. Control of the fetal circulation.


However, it is thought to be mediated, in part, by stimulation of pulmonary stretch receptors circulation foetale in reflex vasodilatation. The presence of fetal haemoglobin and a high CVO help maintain oxygen delivery in the fetus despite low cidculation partial pressures.

Fetal circulation

D ICD – The residual ligament is termed the ligamentum arteriosum. Fetal hemoglobin enhances the fetus’ ability to draw oxygen from the placenta.

View large Download slide. No cleanup reason has been specified. Aorta Patent ductus arteriosus Coarctation of ffoetale aorta Interrupted aortic arch Double aortic arch Right-sided aortic arch Overriding aorta Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva Vascular ring.

This shunt allows a normal development of the left atrium and the left ventricle in that the cardiac musculature on this side is trained.

This can lead to a rise in PVR that, in turn, favours right to left shunting through the FO and DA, which have not yet anatomically closed. However, because the lungs develop very late, the pulmonary vessels are limited in their capacity and the resulting resistance is very high.

In the arteria umbilicalisit is ca 50 mmHg. Some of the blood moves from the aorta through the internal iliac arteries to the umbilical arteries, and re-enters the placenta, where carbon dioxide and other waste products from the fetus are taken up and enter the woman’s circulation.

Introduction The fetal circulation system Changes at birth.