Camber, Caster, Toe-in/Toe-out, explained. On this page we will try to give you more background information on the influence of “camber, caster, toe-in/out on. In automotive engineering, toe, also known as tracking, is the symmetric angle that each wheel Toe is usually adjustable in production automobiles, even though caster angle and camber angle are often not adjustable. A small degree of toe (toe-out for negative camber, toe-in for positive camber) will cancel this turning. The three major alignment parameters on a car are toe, camber, and caster. Excessive toe-in or toe-out causes the tires to scrub, since they are always turned .

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We will start of with a basic explanation first. The toe cawter on a particular car becomes a tradeoff between the straight-line stability afforded by toe-in and the quick steering response promoted by toe-out.

Likewise, when pushed down the road, a non-driven wheel will tend to toe itself out. If the steering axis were to be set vertical with this layout, the axis would be coincident with the tire contact patch. Views Read Edit View history. On front wheel drive vehicles, the situation is more complex. During straight acceleration however, negative camber will reduce the contact surface between the tires and road surface. However, it is rare to set up a rear-drive race car toed out in the rear, since doing so causes excessive oversteer, particularly when cqmber is applied.

Toe (automotive)

Electric motor Hybrid vehicle drivetrain Electric generator Alternator. Negative toe is often used in front wheel drive vehicles for the opposite reason.

When both tires are angled negatively they push against each other, which is fine as long as both tires are in contact with the road surface. John started autocrossing at the age of 16 in a Triumph Spitfire and switched to road racing a few years later. So if minimum tire wear and power loss are achieved with zero toe, why have any toe angles at all? Perhaps the easiest concept to visualize is toe.


No products in the cart. These provide more comfort and “kill” more noise but doing so sacrefice precision and stiffness. Try to imagine a vertical line through the middle of the wheel 0 degrees camber is when this imaginary line is in square with the road. For the walking condition, see in-toe. The amount of toe-in or toe-out dialed into a given ttoe is dependent on the compliance of the suspension and the desired handling characteristics. While maintaining the ideal camber angle throughout the suspension travel assures that the tire is operating at peak efficiency, designers often configure the front suspensions of passenger cars so that the wheels gain positive camber castrr they are deflected upward.

The more positive caster the more “feed-back” you will feel driving the car, especially with a force feedback wheel. Three to five degrees of positive caster is the typical range of settings, with lower angles being used on heavier vehicles to keep the steering effort reasonable. This distance is referred to as “trail. Their suspension arms pull slightly inward, so a slight negative toe will compensate for the drag and level out the wheels at speed. Street cars often are set up with toe-in; For good straight-line stability cornering is sacrefied.

Too much toe-out will cause the inboard edges to wear out. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This can cause funky handling. Army as a vehicle test engineer at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland.

Since the wheel rotates about a tilted axis, the wheel gains camber as it is turned. Toe-out will induce a bit of oversteer, so it could compensate the frontwheel-driver’s understeer.

Result; Better cornering That’s why car-designers try to keep about 0.

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But note that with this slight steering input, the rolling paths of the wheels still don’t describe a turn. To maximize transient response, it is desirable to use a little toe-in at the rear to hasten the generation of slip angles and thus cornering forces in the rear tires.


For more information from this fine publication, please point your browser to Grassroots Motorsports magazine. Zero camber will result in more even tire wear over time, but may rob performance during cornering. Most cars are not particularly sensitive to caster settings. Let’s take a quick look at this basic aspect of suspension tuning. With such an arrangement, the steering axis intersects the ground at a point in front of the tire contact patch, and thus the same effect as seen in the shopping cart casters is achieved.

Caster is needed to create straigth-line stability or one could say “directional steering stability” In order to understand what the effect of caster is we can take the front-wheels of a shopping cart. This effect is best visualized by imagining the unrealistically extreme case where the steering axis would be horizontal-as the steering wheel is turned, the road wheel would simply change camber rather than direction. Use the search box to find the product you are looking for.

Also; negative camber creates a force on the wheels called “camber-thrust”.

Caster, Camber, Toe

Also there’s a difference between static and dynamic toe. In general, it’s desirable to have the inboard edge of the tire slightly hotter than the outboard edge.

This can be a very difficult task, since, as the chassis rolls in a corner, the suspension must deflect vertically some distance. The best way to determine the proper camber for competition is to measure the temperature profile across the tire tread immediately after completing some hot laps.

This is most noticeable in rear-drive cars. Yet the goals of the manufacturer were probably different from yours, the competitor.