Baumgarten’s most significant work, written in Latin, was Aesthetica, 2 vol. ( –58). The problems of aesthetics had been treated by others before Baumgarten . BAUMGARTEN’S AESTHETICA. MARY J. GREGOR. Although the content of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s. Aesthetica1 seems to be familiar in German. Ästhetik Als Philosophie der Sinnlichen Erkenntnis Eine Interpretation der ” Aesthetica” A. G. Baumgartens Mit Teilweiser Wiedergabe des Lateinischen Textes.

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Be that as it may, Winckelmann writes:. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Having published the textbooks for his metaphysics and ethics classes which Kant would still use decades later vaumgarten, Baumgarten then returned to aesthetics, and began working on a major treatise in Kant and Herder on Baumgarten’s Aesthetica.

There he wrote the tragedy Emilia Galotti and his aesthrtica plea for religious tolerance in the form of Nathan the Wisea play inspired by Mendelssohn. Phil Stanfield Like Like.

But Baumgarten’s denomination of the field was an adult baptism: The aim of aesthetics is the perfection of sensible cognition as such, that is, beauty, while its imperfection as such, that baumbarten, ugliness, is to be avoided. He expands upon this contrast in the essay on Sculpture:. To be sure, he often emphasizes the latter aspect of the value of art more than the former; for example, he writes.

A.G. Baumgarten, The Man Who ‘Invented’ Aesthetics | A R T L▼R K

The most general rule is simply that art should imitate nature, so that in order to be beautiful art must imitate what is beautiful in nature. He wants rather to make the ideas he awakens in us so vivid that at the moment we believe that we feel the real impressions which the objects of these ideas would produce in us.

Vorreden zur Metaphysikp. As a determination of the soul, many a representation can have something pleasant about it although, as a picture of the object, it is accompanied by disapproval and a feeling of repugnance. He further insists baumgqrten there is an essential difference within the so-called visual arts that Lessing fails to capture, namely that painting is concerned strictly with with the sense of sight whereas the aesthetics of sculpture in fact derive primarily from the sense of touch.

The last paragraph of this is somewhat contorted: Some variant of this response to Plato was aeathetica core of aesthetics through much baumgrten subsequent philosophical history, and indeed continued to be central to aesthetics through much of the twentieth century.

In explaining this source of pleasure, Mendelssohn also makes another aesfhetica to the traditional theory that it aestheticaa resemblance alone that is the source of our pleasure in imitation, because resemblance is easily produced by means far less complex and admirable than all of the faculties that go into artistry—a point that Plato had already made when he had Socrates argue that if it is mere imitation that the artist were after, he could just go around with a mirror Plato, RepublicBook X, d—e:.


A.G. Baumgarten, The Man Who ‘Invented’ Aesthetics

Kant’s selection of the Jewish student for the defense of his inaugural dissertation in was not accepted happily by some members of the faculty, but Kant supported Herz then and always remained loyal to him, even as the student’s views diverged from his own. When he mentions or discusses specific arts, Wolff invokes more specific conceptions of perfection and thus of the beauties of those arts.

In the first aestheticw he argued that the contemplation of natural beauty has a calming and moderating influence on our passions. Wolff next defines clarity and distinctness and indistinctness in cognition. And art became, not the important thing it was intended to be, but the empty amusement of idle people.

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten – Wikipedia

In the next section, we shall see how Johann Gottfried Herder reasserted yet refined an aesthetics aesthetic truth beginning with a response to Lessing, while Johann Georg Sulzer attempted to combine an aesthetics of truth with an aesthetics of play. Both painting—which Herder is thus far, like Lessing, using as a generic term for the visual arts comprising both painting proper and sculpture—and music use natural signs, that is, signs that communicate the thought of their objects to us by means of resemblance between their own fundamental properties and the fundamental properties of their objects.

He accepted Wolff’s explanation that pleasure arises in the sensible perception of perfection, but also Baumgarten’s transformation of that formula into the explanation of beauty as the perfection of sensible cognition: Lessing does not appeal baummgarten any philosophical theory to back up this baumgaarten.

The living, embodied truth of the three-dimensional space of angles, of form and volume, is not something we can learn through sight. Bajmgarten art aims to produce pleasure both by setting our cognitive powers into activity through the formal and material beauties of its products and by arousing our deepest feelings. ArtLark Post author May 2, Aesthetica aesthetics Alexander Baumgarten beauty immanuel kant.

In the midst of this controversy he died of a stroke in January,at the age of fifty-six. Materialism and scientific discovery architecture In architecture: By introducing this faculty, he wants to emphasize that the experience of beauty or other aesthetic qualities is not actual knowledge, nor does it lead to specific desires and actions except perhaps the desire to be able to continue contemplating an object already found to have been beautiful.

He certainly does, but what he aims to do is to show that the perfections baumgartn can be realized in aesthetic experience are both more positive and more complicated than those recognized by Baumgarten. He was working on a revision of it when he was murdered in Trieste in June ofwhile returning to Rome from Vienna, where the Empress Maria Theresa had awarded him a collection of gold and silver medallions.


But for Wolff our ability to produce works of art is another manifestation of the perfection of the world—of which we are a part—and in turn of God. Wolff’s discussion of architecture makes it clear that in order for us to perceive it as beautiful, a building must display both the formal perfection of coherence as well as aestheyica substantive perfection of being suitable, indeed comfortable for its intended use.

This is why adsthetica engages Lessing in such detail, for example, and why some of his most important claims in aesthetics are contained in the essays on Baumgartten and Shakespeare. What would he not do to transform his sight into touch, to make his seeing into a form of touching that feels in the dark…. But this is only the first step of Herder’s argument. In this instant everything must be rich in thoughts and so full of meaning that every accompanying concept makes its own contribution to the required meaning.

Wolff’s collected works over thirty volumes in German and forty in Latin include German versions of his logic, metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy, and teleology as well as a four-volume encyclopedia of mathematical subjects. The next year he became a village vicar and was able to devote himself to natural history and archaeology. A poet is a skilled imitator of all natural things; and this he has in common with painters, connoisseurs of music, etc.

It seems to be a particular mark of beauty that we contemplate it with quiet satisfaction; that it pleases, even if we do not possess it, and that is remote assthetica the urge to possess it. Yet Mendelssohn no more rejects the idea that works baugarten art do arouse our emotions and that they are, at least in many cases, imitations of nature than he rejects the idea that the perception of perfection and the perfection of perception is central to our experience of beauty and other aesthetic properties.

The next year he published Thoughts on Probability and a translation of Rousseau’s second discourse On the Origins of Inequality. In fact, Mendelssohn’s analysis of our mixed emotions in the experience of tragedy is even more subtle than this, for a further aspect of it is that our knowledge that we are experiencing represented rather than real people allows us to enjoy sympathy with the perfections of the noble characters who are depicted rather than pity at their aestheitca or at the fate that overcomes them.

It must be joyous when it aesfhetica as much as it can. With his soul he seeks to grasp the image that arouse from the arm and the soul of the artist.